Alma Mater
ISSN 1026-955X
Vestnik Vysshey Shkoly (Higher School Herald)
The best way to learn all about Higher Education


Alien’s exclusion vs Other’s inclusion

N.V. Mikhailova

UDC 130.2:172 

N.V. Mihailova is Cand. Sci. (History), Ass. Prof. of the Chair “History, Archeology and Local History” at Vladimir State University n.a. Alexander and Nikolay Stoletovs e-mail:


Researched are some theoretical foundations of inclusive and exclusive strategies. The study is based on culturological and anthropological (sociocultural anthropology) research tools and views as well as on axiological and cultural-semiotic approaches. It is shown that inclusive / exclusive strategies are connected with perception of groups and individuals as Alien / Other. Three aspects of the issue are investigated: forming of different types of attitude towards Alien / Other in history retrospective and specificities of their existence in postmodern post-industrial society and culture; axiological base of forming of alienation as depreciation and the problem of overcoming it; actuality of sociocultural adaptation of “majorities” to Others’ presence. The author concludes that the “Alien” and “Other” division is productive for deeper understanding of what exclusion and inclusion are and how they work. Inclusiveness is shown as a factor of adaptation and a criteria of societies’ adaptability to polysemiotic feature of postmodern (meta)culture, filled with Others’ cultures. Exclusion is shown as the protective mechanism, embodied in Other’s depreciation, displacement and turning Other into Alien.

Key words: Alien, Other, inclusion, exclusion, cultural-semiotic approach, axiological approach, depreciation, adaptation.


  1. Astafyeva, O.N., Sudakova, N.E. Cultural imperatives in the era of globalization: inclusion in the cultural policy of BRICS countries. Age of Clobalization. 2019. No. 4. P. 26–39.
  2. Dubossarskaya, M.L. “Familiar”, “Alien”, “Different” in cultural collision: on the material of the Peruvian chronicles of the XVI century. Abstr. diss. … cand. of culturology: 24.00.01. Moscow, 2012.
  3. Ignatiev, M. Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry. Moscow: Novoe Literaturnoe Obozrenie, 2019. 216 p.
  4. Poletaeva, M.A. The evolution of ideas about the “alien”. Culture of Cultures. 2020. No. 2. URL: (accessed on: 05.06.2020).
  5. El-Mafaalani, A. Paradox of history. Why successful adaptation of migrants leads to new conflicts. Moscow: Novoe Literaturnoe Obozrenie, 2020. 216 p.