Alma Mater
ISSN 1026-955X
Vestnik Vysshey Shkoly (Higher School Herald)
The best way to learn all about Higher Education

=

Gandhi’s nonviolent personality: Mechanisms of opposites integration

V.A. Sitarov, V.G. Maralov
80,00 Р

UDC 159.92+316.6

https://doi.org/10.20339/AM.03-22.016

 

Vyacheslav A. Sitarov, Doctor of Pedagogy, Professor of the Department of Pedagogy, Moscow City Pedagogical University, e-mail: sitarov@mail.ru

Vladimir G. Maralov, Doctor of Psychology, Professor of the Department of Psychology, Cherepovets State University, e-mail: vgmaralov@yandex.ru

 

The article views the problem of researching the “Gandhian” (nonviolent) personality in modern psychology. Based on M. Gandhis psychological construct analysis —“satyagraha”, “ahimsa” and “tapasya”— the article presents a review of works related to the study of the psychological characteristics of a nonviolent person. The main mechanism of functioning of a nonviolent personality is revealed and described — the ability to opposites integration, generated by contradictions that arise in the processes of human interaction with himself, other people, nature, and the whole world.

Keywords: nonviolence, nonviolent personality, nonviolent attitude, mechanisms of opposites integration.

 

References

 

1.         Anthology of Nonviolence. Moscow; Boston, 1991. 256 p.

2.         Deryabo, S.D., Yasvin, V.A. Ecological pedagogy and psychology. Rostov-on-Don: Phoenix, 1996. 480 p.

3.         Maralov, V.G. Acquisition or disposal: the problem of the choice of a self-improvement strategy by students. Integratsiya obrazovaniya = Integration of Education. 2017; 21(3):477-488. DOI: 10.15507/1991-9468.088.021.201703.477-488

4.         Michurin, I.V. Results of sixty years of work on the breeding of new varieties of fruit plants, ed. 3rd, Moscow, 1934.

5.         Poczobut, L.G., Beznosov, D.S. Assertiveness and tolerance in cross-cultural interaction. Sotsial’naia psikhologiia i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society. 2017. Vol. 8(3). P. 8–19. DOI: 10.17759/sps.2017080302

6.         Rogers, C. Empathy. In: Psychology of motivation and emotions. Y.B. Gippenreiter, M.V. Falikman (eds.). Moscow: CheRo, 2002. P. 428–430.

7.         Semelin, J. Getting Out of Violence. In: Global problems i obshchehusiche des values. Moscow: Progress, 1990. P. 76–85.

8.         Tolstoy, L.N. Assyrian tsar Asarkhalon. In: L.N. Tolstoy. Works in 22 vols. Moscow: Art literature, 1983. Vol. 14. P. 17–21.

9.         Schweitzer, A. Reverence before life. Moscow: Progress, 1992.

10.       Acarón, T. Movement decision-making in violence prevention and peace practices. Journal of Peace Education. 2018. Vol. 15(2). P. 191–215. DOI: 10.1080/17400201.2018.1463913

11.       Ashraf, R., Fatima, I. Role of personality and spirituality in nonviolent behavior in young adults. Journal of Behavioural Sciences. 2014. Vol. 24(1). P. 57–70.

12.       Brenes, A.C. An integral model of peace education. In: Wenden, A.L. (ed.) Educating for a culture of social and ecological peace. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2004. P. 77–98.

13.       Brown, S., Reimer, K.S., Dueck, A.C., Gorsuch, R., Strong, R., & Sidesinger, T. A particular peace: Psychometric properties of the Just Peacemaking Inventory. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology. 2008. Vol. 14(1). P. 75–92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10781910701839908

14.       Gandhi, M.K. My Non-violence. Compiled By: Sailesh Kumar Bandopadhyaya. Printed & Published by: Jitendra T Desai Navajivan Publishing House. Ahmedabad, 1960. 408 p.

15.       Gregg, R.B. The Power of Nonviolence. Nyack, NY: Fellowship Publications, 1959. 192 p.

16.       Hasan, Q., Khan, S.R. Dimension of Gandian (nonviolent) personality. Journal of Psychological Researches. 1983. Vol. 27(2). P. 100–106. URL: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1985-06665-001

17.       Jackson, J., Choi, V.K., Gelfand, M.J. Revenge: A Multilevel Review and Synthesis. Annual Review of Psychology, 2019. Vol. 70. P. 319–345. URL: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3318213

18.       Kool, V.K., Sen, M. The nonviolence test. In: D.M. Pestonjee (ed.), Second handbook of psychological and social instruments. Ahemdabad: Indian Institute of Management, 1984. P. 48–54.

19.       Kool, V.K. Applications of Gandhian concepts in psychology and allied disciplines. Indian journal of psychiatry. 2013. 55(Suppl 2). P. 235–238. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.105541

20.       Kool, V.K., Agrawal, R. Gandhi and the Psychology of Nonviolence, Vol. 1: Scientific Roots and Development. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. 2020. 335 p. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-56865-8

21.       Kool, V.K., Agrawal, R. Gandhi and the Psychology of Nonviolence, Vol. 2: Applications across Psychological Science. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. 2020. 333 p. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-56989-1

22.       Macaskill, A. Forgiveness: A Nonviolent Resolution of Interpersonal Conflict. In: Standish, K., Devere, H., Suazo, A., Rafferty, R. (eds.) The Palgrave Handbook of Positive Peace. Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore. 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3877-3_8-1

23.       Mayton, D.M. Gandhi as peacebuilder: The social psychology of Satyagraha. In: D.J. Christie, R.V. Wagner, D.D.N. Winter (eds.). Peace, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st century. Prentice Hall. Pearson Education. 2001. P. 307–313.

24.       Mayton, D. Nonviolence and Peace Psychology. New York: Springer, 2009. 292 p. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-89348-8_3

25.       Nelson, L. Peaceful Personality: Psychological Dynamics and Core Factors. In: Sims, G., Nelson, L., Puopolo, M. (eds.). Personal Peacefulness. Peace Psychology Book Series. Vol. 20. Springer, New York, NY. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9366-2_4

26.       Righetti, F., Sakaluk, J.K., Faure, R., Impett, E.A. The link between sacrifice and relational and personal well-being: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin. 2020. Vol. 146(10). P. 900–921. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000297

27.       Pontara, G. The nonviolent personality. English translation. Copyright 2011 by Maria Keet.

28.       Copyright Italian original (first edition, 1996): Edizioni Gruppo Abele, Torino. URL: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.440.7677&rep=re...

29.       Rosenberg, M.B. Nonviolent communication: a language of life. 2015. Encinitas, CA: PuddleDancer Press. 280 p.

30.       Roy, S. Enhancing Nonviolent Footprints for the Culture of Peace and Nonviolence. International Journal of Peace, Education and Development. 2018. Vol. (2). P. 57–62. DOI: 10.30954/2454–9525.02.2018.2

31.       Sarkar, A., Garg, N. A multilevel model exploring the relationships between individual spirituality, spiritual climate, and nonviolent work behavior. Conflict Resolution Quarterly. 2021. Vol. 38(3). P. 209–229. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/crq.21298

32.       Tutu, D. No future without forgiveness: A personal overview of South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission. New York, 1999. 256 p.