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River basin principle of administrative territorial division as an alternative for modern settlement of ethnic groups of population in Kabardino-Balkaria

А.М. Хатухов, Ф.Ж. Берова
80,00 Р

UDC 35-9

https://doi.org/10.20339/AM.11-20.060   

 

A.M. Khatukhov is Cand.Sci. (Biology), Ass. Prof. at Kabardino-Balkarian State University n.a. H.M. Berbekov e-mail: bsk@kbsu.ru ; and F.Zh. Berova is Dr.Sci. (Economics), Leading Researcher at Institute of Informatics and Problems of Regional Management of Kabardino-Balkarian Scientific Center of RAS e-mail: berova@list.ru

 

Discussed is the problem of complex (historical-demographical, ecological-geographical and economical) administrative-territorial division (ATD) of one of national republics of the North Caucasus, i.e. Kabardino-Balkaria Republic (KBR), based on a comprehensive approach. Data on population censuses of different years, scientific works on discussed topic and the authors own materials on geo-ecology and demography of KBR were used. The archaic character of ATD of the region according to ethnopolitical principle is shown, and it is argued, that such a division of the republic’s territory is a legacy of Russia's colonial policy in the North Caucasus in the 19th century, and the command and administrative system of the Soviet period in the 20th century. Based on historical information, sources of dismemberment of the predecessor of the KBR, i.e. Kabarda (the name up to 1922) on ethno-political principle as one of the tools for solving the militarystrategic task of weakening and “appeasing” are highlighted. Rejection and occupation by Russian colonists of the plain part of Kabarda and redistribution by colonial administration of remaining territory between two indigenous ethnic groups (Kabardins and Balkars) with infringement of one side and encouragement of other created a “three-story” contradictory structure: one on the plain, others on the foothills, others on the foothills in the mountains. Such a division was finally established as a result of administrative-territorial reform of the 1920s and continues to form the formal basis of ATD of KBR. This fact, as well as consolidation of artificial division of Kabarda in the double name of the republic (Kabardino-Balkaria) periodically becomes occasion for demonstration of ostentatious separatist sentiments. Results of this study indicate, that by the end of the 20th century, due to redistribution of population and integration processes, the ethnic map of KBR came into conflict with the ATD on ethno-political basis. With this in mind, a new version of ATD of KBR, based on basin principle is proposed and justified, removing interethnic contradictions, generated by previous division and guaranteeing sustainable development of the republic. Relevance of the study is in the imperfection of ATD of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, as the cause of interethnic contradictions has not yet become the subject of a special study. Thus, adoption of the basin principle as the basis of the ATD with establishment of 5th districts instead of the current 10th would remove problems, created by ethno-political division and contribute to sustainable development

and preservation of unique nature of one of mountain resorts of the country.

Key words: North Caucasus, Kabardino-Balkaria Republic, population, ethno-political fragmentation, administrative-territorial division, basin principle, sustainable development.

 

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