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Sociocultural approach in modern historical process

E.A. Tokareva
80,00 Р

UDC 303::93/94

https://doi.org/10.20339/AM.05-20.027        

 

E.A. Tokareva is Cand.Sci. (History), prof. at Moscow City Pedagogical University e-mail: tokareva.7458@gmail.com  

 

Presented is the analysis of methodological foundations of sociocultural approach in historical knowledge. Theoretical and methodological potential of sociocultural approach as an alternative to the paradigm of historical monism is revealed. The idea is substantiated, that orientation on sociocultural factors by constructing methodology of historical knowledge makes it possible to realize substantial diversity of historical reality. At the same time, sociocultural approach is integrative. Models of historical development are analyzed. It is shown, that categories of historical science as a whole coincide with categories of culture. Based on the analysis of sources, it is proved, that application of sociocultural approach to historical process significantly expands methodological and research paradigms. By using sociocultural approach in historical descriptions, a number of significant substantial reorientations are observed, namely: moving away from the “elitist” towards the “marginal”, shifting research attention to

historiographic phenomena of regionalism and localism, emergence of new areas of historical localism and, accordingly, new “problem fields”, i.e. historical regionalism, local history, everyday history, microhistory, mental geography. Emergence of the concept of mesoscale is substantiated, that can act as an important link in the system between macro- and microapproaches, which offers a key to explaining variability and increased dynamism of societies. Shifting the focus of methodology of historical knowledge to sociocultural factors makes it possible to realize the substantial diversity of historical reality, treat history as a story about the “mosaic” of different cultures, each of which expresses a unique way of life of certain people.

Key words: cultural studies of history, historiography, national identity.

 

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