Alma Mater
ISSN 1026-955X
Vestnik Vysshey Shkoly (Higher School Herald)
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The nature and causes of formalization of education in Russia and in the world

L.B. Erstein
80,00 Р


UDC 37.01        


L.B. Ershteyn is Cand.Sci. (Pedagogy), doc. at St.-Petersburg University of Management Technologies and Economics e-mail:     


Discussed are the essence and the problem of formalization of professional and general education. Definition of formalization of education is given. Formal education results, such as document on graduation, assessment, program and report are revealed. Historical reasons for appearance of formalization of education are shown. It is proved, that historically formal education emerged as a system, designed to implement two main functions, namely limiting the number of workers in specific professions and confirming ability to engage in this profession. It is indicated, that at the moment formal education has ceased to fulfill functions, for which it was created. Ways of achieving formal results of education without achieving real results, such as legal, conditionally legal and not legal. Reasons for formalizing general education are shown. It is argued, that formalization of general education is associated with inability to find natural criteria for the content of general education, which leads to declarative construction of the content of general education, and therefore requirement for formal results of its development. Criticism of the technological approach to the construction of education is cited, as one of the reasons for formalization of education. It is argued, that it is not possible to build education as a technical system, because of uncertainty of education, on the one hand, and outstripping nature of results of education, on the other hand.

Key words: formalization of education, vocational education, general education, reasons for formalization.


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