Alma Mater
ISSN 1026-955X
Vestnik Vysshey Shkoly (Higher School Herald)
The best way to learn all about Higher Education

=

Origins of global scientific technical revolution

S.B. Bondarenko
80,00 Р

UDC 008  

https://doi.org/10.20339/AM.05-21.117

 

S.B. Bondarenko is Dr. Sci. (Philosophy), Prof., Prof. of Department of Philosophy at Kursk State University e-mail: bondsb@rambler.ru

 

Examined are origins of the scientific and technological revolution (STR). Definitions of globalization and STR are analyzed. The role of Russia in accelerating the process of STR globalization in general and the importance of activities of Leningrad Institute of Physics and Technology for scientific and technological development of Russia in particular are noted. The main directions of STR in the United States at the end of the 19th century (electrical engineering, communications, mechanization, power generators, motors, aviation, automobiles, microbiology, genetics, military equipment) are highlighted. The features of optimizing for the interaction of science and technology with economy through legal means: the US state has improved its legislation in order to have effective legal and financial instruments to stimulate scientific and technological creativity. Mutually beneficial contracts and patents have become great economic importance for the customer and the contractor. Specific functions of higher education in the process of scientific and technical development at the second half of the 19th century are explained. The reasons of the STR globalization are revealed.

Key words: scientific-technical revolution, globalization, state, patent, higher education.

 

References

1. Engelmeyer, P.K. Technical result of 19th century. Moscow: Tipografia K.A. Kaznacheeva, 1898. 109 p.

2. Robertson, R. Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture. London: Sage, 1992. 211 p.

3. Mumford, L. Technics and Civilization. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1934. 495 p.

4. Bernal, J.D. The Social Function of Science. London: George Routledge & Son LTD, 1939. 482 p.

5. Nehru, J. View on world history. Vol. 3. Moscow: Progress, 1970. P. 309–310.

6. Lodygin, A.N. Technical education and ideals of American engineers. Elektrichestvo. 1909. No. 2.

7. Frenkel, V.Ya. 50 years of Physico-Technical Institute n.a. A.F. Ioffe AN SSSR (Leningrad). Successes of physical sciences. 1968. Vol. 96. Iss. 3. P. 529–568.

8. Vitman, N.A., Kunitsina, E.V. Abram Fedorovich Ioffe — first director of PhysTech (Fizteh). Priroda. 2018. No. 9. P. 50-59.

9. Ioffe, A.F. On Physics and physical researchers. Leningrad: Nauka, 1985. 544 p.

10. Wilson, M. American Science and Invention. Moscow: Znanie, 1975. 131 p.

11. Gbur, G.J. Falling Felines and Fundamental Physics. New Haven. Yale University Press, 2019. 337 p.

12. Spencer, H.  Americans. Spencer H. Essays: Scientific, Political, and Speculative. Vol 3. Minsk: Sovremennyi Literator, 1999. P. 1385–1405.

13. Kryui, P. Hunters for microbes. Struggle for life. Moscow: Nauka, 1987. 432 p.

14. Shlegel, G.G. History of Micro-biology. Moscow: URSS, 2002. 304 p.

15. Geiger, R.L The History of American Higher Education. Learning and Culture from the Founding to World War II. Princeton. Princeton University Press,  2015. 564 p.